Silicon steel, also known as "electrical steel", is a soft magnetic alloy of ferrosilicon with extremely low carbon content. The addition of silicon can not only increase the resistivity and maximum permeability of iron, but also reduce core loss (iron loss), coercivity, and magnetic aging. It is generally used in the iron cores of various motors and transformers, and is an indispensable and important soft magnetic alloy in the power, electronics and military industries.
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(1) According to the production process: it can be divided into hot-rolled and cold-rolled silicon steel. Hot-rolled silicon steel has low availability and large energy loss, and has been gradually eliminated. Cold-rolled silicon steel is divided into oriented silicon steel and non-oriented silicon steel according to the orientation of the internal grains.
(2) According to the silicon content, electrical steel is divided into two types: low silicon wafer (medium and low grade) and high silicon wafer (high grade). Low silicon wafers have a certain mechanical strength and are mainly used to manufacture motors, commonly known as motor silicon steel sheets; high silicon wafers have good magnetic properties, but are brittle, and are mainly used to manufacture transformer cores, commonly known as transformer silicon steel sheets.
(1) Non-oriented silicon steel
①Large electromechanical: water, fire, nuclear power units: above 30-50W290; wind turbines: above 30-35W360
②Household appliances: high-efficiency inverter air conditioner compressor: 30-50W360 or more; high-efficiency inverter refrigerator compressor: 30-35W360 or more
③Small and medium electromechanical: Y1, Y2, Y3 series and derivatives: low grade; high efficiency, super high efficiency: above 30-35W470
④New energy vehicle: drive motor: above 30-35-50W350; new energy vehicle micro motor: above 20-35W360
(2) Oriented silicon steel
Transformers: high-end transformers: 750KV, 1000KV; medium and low-end transformers: 220-500KV, 110-200KV, less than 110KV; energy-saving transformers of various grades: 0.18-30mm
The difference between non-oriented silicon steel and oriented silicon steel：
The grains of oriented silicon steel are basically in one direction, and the silicon content is relatively high. It is mainly used in the manufacture of transformers. Non-oriented silicon steel has disordered grain distribution and low silicon content, and is mainly used in motor manufacturing. The silicon content is generally bounded by 3%; cold-rolled silicon steel is divided into cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel and cold-rolled oriented silicon steel.
(1) The production process requirements of cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel are relatively low, and the silicon mass fraction is between 0.5% and 3.0%. The thickness of the finished product after cold rolling is generally 0.35 and 0.5mm thick strips. Its Bs is higher than that of oriented silicon steel, the thickness is uniform, the dimensional accuracy is high, the surface is smooth and flat, and the filling factor and the magnetic properties of the material are improved.
(2) The mass fraction of silicon in cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steel is above 3.0%, and the mass fraction of carbon is 0.03%-0.05%. Steels have low levels of oxide inclusions and require inhibitors. Compared with cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel, oriented silicon steel has lower loss, strong magnetic directionality, and superior high permeability and low loss characteristics in its rolling direction. Cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steel, also known as cold-rolled transformer silicon steel, is mainly used in transformer manufacturing.
(3) Cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steel can also be divided into two types: ordinary grain-oriented silicon steel (CGO) and high magnetic induction grain-oriented silicon steel (Hi-B). The high magnetic induction cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steels are all single-oriented steel strips, which are mainly used for the manufacture of various types of choke coils, transformers and other electromagnetic components in electronic instruments.